Wanting to learn the basics of computer boards? First start with learning more about printed circuit boards (PCBs). A printed circuit board is an electronic component that used conductive tracks, pad and other etched copper sheets to mechanically support and electronically connect features onto a non-conductive substrate. The substrate is the base where the other components are mounted onto. It is non-conductive as to not interfere with the electrical connections. PCBs can be single sided, double sided, or multi-layered. It makes sense that multi-layered PCBs work best if you have higher component density needs. There are also US based quick turn PCB prototypes that are efficient to work off of. conductors on different layers are connected through vias. Capacitors, resistors, or active devices may be found on advanced PCBs as well.
To take it back down to the basics, printed circuit boards are used in the simplest electronic products, but all of them as well these days. By all, that means the vast majority! Alternatives to PCBs would be wire wrap or point to point construction. Those are not as commonly seen these days though. It is possible to build your own PCB. Some like the thrill of doing it, either by learning the ropes in a sense or just to do it so they, themselves can understand the working of it. Other times it is much more economical to purchase a manufactured circuits with PCBs. It is significantly faster, and it eliminates the factor of operator wiring errors. Those can be frustrating and terribly time consuming, not to mention it takes practice to get good at them.
To take the concept a step further, a printed wiring board, or a PWB is when a board has only copper wiring connections and no embedded components. This is if you want to be more thorough and more technical in the naming and identifying of PCBs. Furthermore, a PCA or a printed circuit assembly is a PCB already with electronic components on it. It is also referred to as a PCBA (printed circuit board assembly).
So where you would get something like this if you are wanting to dive into this field to learn the hands-on side of things? Online is a great place to start. You can not only find information, forums on these types of topics, but also learn tutorials like on YouTube and other such applications. Search for what you are specifically looking for. We live in a hyper-specific internte time these days, so you may likely find it online to learn about and follow along. If not, then you can learn and piece together your own new, unique ideas.